Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G22220.2
Common NameATE2FB, E2F1, E2FB, T6G21
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family E2F/DP
Protein Properties Length: 469aa    MW: 51653.3 Da    PI: 4.3818
Description E2F transcription factor 1
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G22220.2genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
      E2F_TDP   1 rkeksLrlltqkflkllekseegivtlnevakeLvsedvknkrRRiYDilNVLealnliekkekneirwkg 71 
                  r+++sL+llt+kf++l++++e+gi++ln++a++L   +v  ++RRiYDi+NVLe+++liek+ kn+i+wkg
                  6899******************************...99..****************************98 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
Gene3DG3DSA: helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain
SuperFamilySSF467852.58E-17129192IPR011991Winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain
SMARTSM013725.9E-35129194IPR003316E2F/DP family, winged-helix DNA-binding domain
PfamPF023191.6E-24131194IPR003316E2F/DP family, winged-helix DNA-binding domain
CDDcd146608.81E-46205310No hitNo description
SuperFamilySSF1440746.54E-32207310No hitNo description
PfamPF164213.9E-32210308IPR032198E2F transcription factor, CC-MB domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0008284Biological Processpositive regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0009733Biological Processresponse to auxin
GO:0010090Biological Processtrichome morphogenesis
GO:0045893Biological Processpositive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0051302Biological Processregulation of cell division
GO:0051446Biological Processpositive regulation of meiotic cell cycle
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0005667Cellular Componenttranscription factor complex
GO:0005737Cellular Componentcytoplasm
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000016anatomylateral root primordium
PO:0000017anatomyvascular leaf primordium
PO:0000035anatomycotyledon vascular system
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000084anatomyplant sperm cell
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000232anatomyaxillary bud meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0006504anatomyleaf trichome
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0009072anatomyplant ovary
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0020148anatomyshoot apical meristem
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0025257anatomyprimary root elongation zone
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007131developmental stageseedling development stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 469 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT5G22220-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Most abundant at the G1/S transition. Lower but constant level in the following phases. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11669580, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11786543, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16514015}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in proliferating cells and several differentiated tissues. Detected in inflorescence and shoot apical meristems, cotyledonary vascular tissues, leaf primordia, young leaves, base of trichomes, central cylinder and elongation zone of roots, lateral root primordia, flowers, pistils of immature flowers and pollen grains. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16514015}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRMember of the E2F transcription factors, (cell cycle genes), key components of the cyclin D/retinoblastoma/E2F pathway. Binds DPA and RBR1 proteins. Expressed throughout the cell cycle. Abundance increased by auxin through stabilization of the protein. Elevates CDK levels and activity, even under hormone-free conditions. Promotes cell division and shortens cell doubling time, inhibits cell growth. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtE2Fa contained an increased level of AtE2Fb transcripts that is paralleled by an increase in the amount of the AtE2Fb protein, suggesting that AtE2Fb expression might actually be up-regulated by the AtE2Fa transcription factor.
UniProtTranscription activator that binds DNA cooperatively with DP proteins through the E2 recognition site, 5'-TTTC[CG]CGC-3' found in the promoter region of a number of genes whose products are involved in cell cycle regulation or in DNA replication. The binding of retinoblastoma-related proteins represses transactivation. Involved in the control of cell-cycle progression from G1 to S phase and from G2 to M phase. Stimulates cell proliferation and delays differentiation. Represses cell enlargement and endoreduplication in auxin-free conditions. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11669580, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11786543, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11862494, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11891240, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12913157, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16055635, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16514015}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Results suggest that E2FB is one of the key targets for auxin to determine whether cells proliferate or whether they exit the cell cycle, enlarge, and endoreduplicate their DNA.
    [PMID: 16055635]
  2. AtE2Fa and AtE2Fb have specific expression patterns and may play similar but distinct roles during cell cycle progression.
    [PMID: 16514015]
  3. The authors found that S6K1 associates with the Retinoblastoma-related 1 (RBR1)-E2FB complex and this is partly mediated by its N-terminal LVxCxE motif.
    [PMID: 20683442]
  4. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DEL1 gene was identified as a transcriptional target of the classical E2Fb and E2Fc transcription factors.
    [PMID: 21908689]
  5. S6K1 interacts with retinoblastoma protein RBR via its N-terminal RBR binding motif, promotes its nuclear localization and consequent RBR-dependent repression of cell cycle genes through transcription factor E2FB.
    [PMID: 23531690]
  6. SIM and SMR1 are involved in hyperphosphorylation of the cell-cycle regulator RBR1 and overexpression of E2F target genes.
    [PMID: 25455564]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
MP00661PBMTransfer from Pp3c1_6880Download
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Up-regulated by light and by auxin. May be up-regulated by E2FA. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16055635, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16514015, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18424613}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT2G36010 (A), AT5G14960 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT2G40550(A), AT3G54180(A), AT5G24330(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
IntActSearch Q9FV71
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G22220
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAF2425800.0AF242580.1 Arabidopsis thaliana E2F transcription factor-1 E2F1 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAY1364790.0AY136479.1 Arabidopsis thaliana expressed protein (At5g22220) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankBT0066100.0BT006610.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At5g22220 mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_568413.10.0E2F transcription factor 1
SwissprotQ9FV710.0E2FB_ARATH; Transcription factor E2FB
TrEMBLD7M0V20.0D7M0V2_ARALL; Putative uncharacterized protein
STRINGAT5G22220.20.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP12251749
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Magyar Z,Atanassova A,De Veylder L,Rombauts S,Inzé D
    Characterization of two distinct DP-related genes from Arabidopsis thaliana.
    FEBS Lett., 2000. 486(1): p. 79-87
  2. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  3. de Jager SM,Menges M,Bauer UM,Murra JA
    Arabidopsis E2F1 binds a sequence present in the promoter of S-phase-regulated gene AtCDC6 and is a member of a multigene family with differential activities.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2001. 47(4): p. 555-68
  4. Mariconti L, et al.
    The E2F family of transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana. Novel and conserved components of the retinoblastoma/E2F pathway in plants.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2002. 277(12): p. 9911-9
  5. Rossignol P, et al.
    AtE2F-a and AtDP-a, members of the E2F family of transcription factors, induce Arabidopsis leaf cells to re-enter S phase.
    Mol. Genet. Genomics, 2002. 266(6): p. 995-1003
  6. Kosugi S,Ohashi Y
    Interaction of the Arabidopsis E2F and DP proteins confers their concomitant nuclear translocation and transactivation.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 128(3): p. 833-43
  7. Vandepoele K, et al.
    Genome-wide analysis of core cell cycle genes in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14(4): p. 903-16
  8. Egelkrout EM, et al.
    Two E2F elements regulate the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter differently during leaf development.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14(12): p. 3225-36
  9. Kosugi S,Ohashi Y
    Constitutive E2F expression in tobacco plants exhibits altered cell cycle control and morphological change in a cell type-specific manner.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 132(4): p. 2012-22
  10. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  11. Maiti B, et al.
    Cloning and characterization of mouse E2F8, a novel mammalian E2F family member capable of blocking cellular proliferation.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2005. 280(18): p. 18211-20
  12. Magyar Z, et al.
    The role of the Arabidopsis E2FB transcription factor in regulating auxin-dependent cell division.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(9): p. 2527-41
  13. Sozzani R, et al.
    Interplay between Arabidopsis activating factors E2Fb and E2Fa in cell cycle progression and development.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(4): p. 1355-66
  14. Raynaud C, et al.
    Two cell-cycle regulated SET-domain proteins interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2006. 47(3): p. 395-407
  15. L
    Distinct light-initiated gene expression and cell cycle programs in the shoot apex and cotyledons of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2008. 20(4): p. 947-68
  16. Takahashi N, et al.
    The DNA replication checkpoint aids survival of plants deficient in the novel replisome factor ETG1.
    EMBO J., 2008. 27(13): p. 1840-51
  17. Ascencio-Ib
    Global analysis of Arabidopsis gene expression uncovers a complex array of changes impacting pathogen response and cell cycle during geminivirus infection.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(1): p. 436-54
  18. Sozzani R, et al.
    The E2FD/DEL2 factor is a component of a regulatory network controlling cell proliferation and development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2010. 72(4-5): p. 381-95
  19. Boruc J, et al.
    Functional modules in the Arabidopsis core cell cycle binary protein-protein interaction network.
    Plant Cell, 2010. 22(4): p. 1264-80
  20. Henriques R, et al.
    Arabidopsis S6 kinase mutants display chromosome instability and altered RBR1-E2F pathway activity.
    EMBO J., 2010. 29(17): p. 2979-93
  21. Van Leene J, et al.
    Targeted interactomics reveals a complex core cell cycle machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Mol. Syst. Biol., 2010. 6: p. 397
  22. Heckmann S, et al.
    The E2F transcription factor family regulates CENH3 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2011. 68(4): p. 646-56
  23. Berckmans B, et al.
    Light-dependent regulation of DEL1 is determined by the antagonistic action of E2Fb and E2Fc.
    Plant Physiol., 2011. 157(3): p. 1440-51
  24. Hirano H,Shinmyo A,Sekine M
    Both negative and positive G1 cell cycle regulators undergo proteasome-dependent degradation during sucrose starvation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2011. 6(9): p. 1394-6
  25. Henriques R,Magyar Z,B
    S6K1 and E2FB are in mutually antagonistic regulatory links controlling cell growth and proliferation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2013. 8(6): p. e24367
  26. Derkacheva M, et al.
    Arabidopsis MSI1 connects LHP1 to PRC2 complexes.
    EMBO J., 2013. 32(14): p. 2073-85
  27. Wang S, et al.
    A noncanonical role for the CKI-RB-E2F cell-cycle signaling pathway in plant effector-triggered immunity.
    Cell Host Microbe, 2014. 16(6): p. 787-94
  28. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73